DESIGNING IN BLACK & WHITE Elements of Art & Principles of Design
Elements of Art: Line - is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Types of line can include actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal and contour lines.
Texture - is about surface quality either tactile or visual. Texture can be real or implied by different uses of media. It is the degree of roughness or smoothness in objects.
Shape - is a 2-dimensional line with no form or thickness. Shapes are flat and can be grouped into two categories, geometric and organic.
Form - is a 3-dimensional object having volume and thickness. It is the illusion of a 3-D effect that can be implied with the use of light and shading techniques. Form can be viewed from many angles.
Value - is the degree of light and dark in a design. It is the contrast between black and white and all the tones in between. Value can be used with color as well as black and white. Contrast is the extreme changes between values.
Size - refers to variations in the proportions of objects, lines or shapes. There is a variation of sizes in objects either real or imagined. (some sources list Proportion/Scale as a Principle of Design) These elements are used to create the Principles of Design. Principles are the results of using the Elements. When you are working in a particular format (size and shape of the work surface) the principles are used to create interest, harmony and unity to the elements that you are using. You can use the Principles of design to check your composition to see if it has good structure.
Principles of Compositional Design The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. The principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.
Center of interest (Emphasis) - is an area that first attracts attention in a composition. This area is more important when compared to the other objects or elements in a composition. This can be by contrast of values, more colors, and placement in the format.
Balance - is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc. Balance can be symmetrical or evenly balanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly balanced. Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc., can be used in creating a balance in a composition.
Harmony(unity) - brings together a composition with similar units. If your composition was using wavy lines and organic shapes you would stay with those types of lines and not put in just one geometric shape. (Notice how similar Harmony is to Unity - some sources list both terms)
Contrast - offers some change in value creating a visual discord in a composition. Contrast shows the difference between shapes and can be used as a background to bring objects out and forward in a design. It can also be used to create an area of emphasis.
Directional Movement - is a visual flow through the composition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way of placement and position. Directional movement can be created with a value pattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that you can move your attention through the format.
Rhythm - is a movement in which some elements recur regularly. Like a dance it will have a flow of objects that will seem to be like the beat of music.
The Principles of design are the results of your working with the elements of art. Use them in every piece of art you create, and you will be happy with the results.
Project: Select four themes from the list below and photograph in Black + White (film) – THINK IN BLACK + WHITE – Shoot 8 images per theme.
1. Reflections in chrome or other reflective surface 2. Store window reflections (e.g., an antique or consignment store) 3. Passageways 4. Light through a window 5. Bicycles, cars & other modes of transportation (close-up, fill in the frame) 6. Architectural detail 7. Abstracting objects in an everyday environment 8. Lines and patterns 9. Foreshortened Image 10. Close up of texture 11. Silhouette 12. Motion/Panning 13. Perspective 14. Billboards, street signs & messages 15. People or objects submerged in water
You will turn in darkroom contact sheet to receive credit. We will have a class critique on the prints to help you determine which compositions work best in regard to the rule of thirds and how to photograph your subject with more interesting viewpoints to attract viewers to your compositions. Print one 8" x 10" of each of your best FOUR photos for your portfolio.